EVAS is an acronym for the “Emergency Vision Assurance System.” EVAS provides a clear path through which a pilot can see flight instruments and out the front windscreen regardless of the smoke density. This allows the pilot to safely land the plane if there is smoke in the cockpit.
Yes, EVAS is FAA approved.
VisionSafe is the only PMA (Parts Manufacturer Approval) manufacturing facility in Hawaii. Our product is the ONLY FAA Certified Cockpit Smoke Displacement System. By retrofitting EVAS, it helps aircraft meet the enhanced standards for continuous cockpit smoke protection recommended by the FAA in Advisory Circular 25.9A.
Note: Not only is EVAS approved by the FAA, but is installed on all their turbine aircraft excluding turboprop.
The following steps below are from the FAA Advisory Circular 25.9A, you will note in number 2 below, it calls for termination of the smoke source once vision is obscured, unfortunately in a real-life event the termination of such a source could be impossible.
From FAA AD 25.9A:
e. Test Procedures. The smoke evacuation tests should be conducted with smoke generated in the cockpit as follows:
(1) The cockpit door or curtain, if insta11ed, should be closed for the test. The crew should don protective breathing equipment as soon as the smoke is evident.
(2) When the cockpit instruments are obscured (dial/panel indicator numbers or letters become indiscernible), smoke generation should be terminated, and the appropriate AFM and operations manual (if applicable) fire and smoke procedures should be initiated . The smoke should be reduced within three minutes such that any residual smoke (haze) does not distract the flight crew or interfere with flight operations.
EVAS is a fully self-contained unit which ensures a pilot’s continuous vision despite the density of smoke within the cockpit. The unit draws in smoke, filters it to a 0.3 micron and fills a customized IVU (Inflatable Vision Unit) with clear air. This safety feature allows the pilot to see his instruments, out the front windscreen and safely land the aircraft in a smoke emergency.
Yes, we do.
It varies by country. We would need to follow the same process as we do in the U.S. We would go through the FAA and put in a request. We presently have certifications with the United States (FAA), Canada (TCCA), Europe (EASA), China (CAAC), Argentina (ANAC), Brazil (ANAC), Hong Kong (HKCAD), Mexico (DGAC), and Turkey, (DGCA). Currently, we are also working with Russia (Rosaviatsiya) to obtain STC approval as well.
Smoke emergencies are a serious on-going problem and continue to rise at an alarming rate. In 2017 – there were 1,650 reported smoke incidents. In 2018 – According to the latest data (received 10/14/2019) there were 1,722 reported smoke incidents. In 2019 – there were 653 smoke incidents reported (as per the FAA more information to follow pending verifications). On average, there are about 3 incidences of smoke or fumes on an aircraft in the United States alone. This striking statistic had the FAA send out an InFO report addressing the seriousness of the matter. Smoke, fire and fumes in the cockpit represents one of the most feared hazards within aviation. It can lead to loss of control of the aircraft which leads to loss of lives. EVAS provides that sense of security. We provide the crew and passengers an added safety measure, the necessary tool to see clearly in a dense smoke-filled cockpit so the pilot may safely land the aircraft.
EVAS is proudly made in the USA, Hawaii.
Yes, we are. Once EVAS is STC certified, EVAS is added to the MMEL (the master minimum equipment list) by the FAA. The FAA MMEL process can take months as the FAA only addresses MMEL items from time to time. Our product, EVAS, is NOT required for dispatch. Any aircraft that we have an STC for should have the MEL revised and EVAS added.
The unit weighs approximately 6 pounds and is easily installed.
The EVAS system is self-contained in a six-sided black anodized aluminum container that is equivalent to the size of a Jeppesen manual.
The unit is lightweight and compact. Measurements are as follows:
No, it is independent from the power of the aircraft. It relies on a self-contained battery power supply, blower and filter in each storage case. It is powered by an Alkaline Battery Pack (+/- 12.0V, 3V, 2.8Ah)
The battery pack is certified for up to 27 months with normal testing requirements. VisionSafe Corporation is presently working on the 36-month project.
The battery does not need to be charged because it’s an Alkaline Battery.
No, the customer would need to send the unit back for service. The unit will require to be sent for service if there is a 90-day test failure or if it's due for a biennial service (two year).
No, it would not. EVAS is a self-contained and powered unit. This is also part of our certification process to ensure that battery signal would not interfere with any of the equipment on the aircraft.
Yes, each EVAS unit has its’ own serial number and each model has its’ own part number.
The IVU (Inflatable Vision Unit) is made of a flame-retardant rip-stop nylon & Teflon. The thread that is used is a high tensile strength polyester.
The internal IVU air pressure is approximately 9.6 in H20.
The Advantages vs. Disadvantages of a Smoke Hood & EVAS
Smoke hoods are for breathing and not for seeing through dense smoke. The most basic function of the smoke hood is to protect pilots/victims from fire and the effects of smoke inhalation. They would mainly be used when a crew member is not seated in a crew position. Its’ purpose is to provide a “portable” smoke and oxygen mask situation in which the pilot must leave the flight deck. However, it is important to note that while a pilot may use a smoke hood, it does not take the place of an EVAS safety system. A pilot would still need EVAS in order to see their flight instruments and see clearly through the windscreen. Once the EVAS unit is deployed, the IVU allows the pilot to safely land the aircraft in the event of a smoke emergency. Remember, if a pilot can’t see, he can’t fly. Therefore, in conclusion, a smoke hood is not a substitute for an EVAS safety system, or vice versa.
f we have an STC for the aircraft, the lead time is 4 to 6 weeks. If we don’t have an STC for the aircraft, then we must go through the certification process with the FAA. The process can take anywhere from 6 to 18 months upon completion. It depends on the complexity of the installation as well as the FAA approval process.
If the product arrives damaged, through no fault of the customer, then the turnaround time would be approximately 5 business days. For our fleet customers, we offer a spare and loaner program to ensure that all their aircraft are equipped accordingly if that should happen.
EVAS is not considered hazardous. There is a specified label that is placed on the package prior to shipment indicating it does not contain hazardous materials. (Not restricted, SPEC. PROV. A123)
The customer must securely package the EVAS unit. In order to fully secure the unit, it is imperative that the unit is properly cushioned within the package to prevent excessive movement. Proper packing procedures prevents unintentional activation. Each package must be marked clearly “Not Restricted.”
Yes, any authorized person (Civil Aviation Authority or FAA) can install an EVAS unit. Customers receive an STC Kit containing written instructions along with the necessary hardware for proper installation. A typical installation may take only 2 hours but a more complicated installation on an aircraft may take up to 8 hours (greater than 2 (model specific) per install).
No, they do not. However, it is an important component in the operators overall safety culture, Safety Management System (SMS).
Every EVAS unit needs to be mounted as per the installation drawings per aircraft that we supply to the customer. Installs generally may take up to 90 minutes per side depending on the EVAS model.
Direct Mount - the unit would be mounted directly to the airplane structure or instrument console using two or more fasteners. Rail Mount - a mounting rail is attached to the airplane structure or instrument console allowing for ease of installation and removal. The EVAS unit slides into the mounting rail and is secured into place with top mounted fasteners.
Inboard, outboard, or behind of the pilot seat & co-pilot seat. Generally, a unit is installed outboard of the seat. Some installs are inboard or behind. 90% of the installs are outboard of the pilots.
No, there are no field servicing requirements for EVAS. The battery pack cannot be replaced by the customer.
VisionSafe offers several types of training to our customers. Prices may vary per training sessions. Only Private Operators receive a complimentary Key Code from King Schools for training. (1 Key Code (password) is given per new ship set). This does not apply to OEMs, MROs, Airliners and Freighters (UPS/DHL) unless otherwise instructed as most have their own training curriculums. We offer these specific operators a “train the trainer” course for their internal training curriculums.
King Schools - Online Training
FlightSafety International - Simulator Training
CAE - Simulator Training
The training process may be completed between 15 minutes to an hour depending on the type of training that is selected, by the operator, designee or owner.
Online training can be done in advance. If a customer decides to elect another form of training, scheduling time is usually easily available.
No, it is not. It is not recommended that a customer tries to Open an EVAS unit for visual inspection as it would lead to an additional non-standard service fee of approximately $3000. However, the unit is readily accessible in the cockpit to perform the required 90-day periodic routine inspection to ensure proper working order.
EVAS operators are required to perform routine inspections every 90 days to ensure that the units are in proper working order.
The owner, operator or designee will perform a visual check on the unit for its’ general condition, security and position in the cockpit.
The EVAS unit must also be given a blower and battery check to ensure proper battery voltage and blower motor operation.
NOTE: The span between checks should not exceed 90 days.
These checkpoints are performed by the aircraft owner, operator or designee.
To be performed 1x a month or at regular intervals not exceeding 90 days.
A SINGLE EVAS Test Tool is included in each STC kit. A visual check is performed for its’ general condition, security and proper position within the cockpit.
Depress the blower and battery test buttons simultaneously, insert the tool that comes with the STC Kit (this handy tool is stored inside the label on the top of each
EVAS unit). Insert the tool into the “Blower” test hole and into the “Battery” test hole at the same time. Push to test for approximately 1-3 seconds. If the blower motor is heard and a green indicator light appears, then its’ serviceable.
In the event the blower motor does not run, EVAS is inoperable.
For the battery, confirm which test lights illuminates.
The loop fastener(s) are secured on the glare shield. Re-attachment or replacement may be done by using an epoxy adhesive. Specific instructions for each model can be found on the installation drawings.
An EVAS system will require regular service, every 24 months. The service due date is clearly indicated on each EVAS unit.
The EVAS unit will be disassembled, cleaned, inspected, repaired as necessary, reassembled, and tested in accordance with the approved or accepted data. This service includes replacing the battery pack. The service may also include applicable upgrades as deemed necessary by VisionSafe Corporation. EVAS customers must remove their units from the aircraft and ship them to VisionSafe for servicing. Once they are serviced, the engraved year is covered by a new sticker indicating the next service due date. The 2-year service may be performed 3 months prior and up to 3 months after the Service Due Date that is printed on the EVAS container.
If the unit is in for service prior to the 3 months or after the 3-month grace period, the base service date will be changed accordingly to reflect the new 24-month due date.
Yes, EVAS loaners may be requested by the customer, dependent on the
loaner model availability.
Loaners will be provided to the customer free of charge.
Immediate inspection is required once:
An EVAS unit is deployed - this includes and not limited to unintentional, accidental or during an actual smoke emergency (once the IVU is inflated). The integrity of the EVAS container or contents are compromised. For instance, if the unit gets dented somehow, any liquid is accidentally spilled on the unit and leaks into the housing of the unit. Any test in which the “Battery Condition” status indicates “Inop” (Red test light or No light).
Typically, once an EVAS unit goes in for a repair the service time is typically 24 hours at the facility. The turnaround time is 5 business days. This is dependent on the customer whether they chose FedEx, UPS or DHL as it is at their own expense. New EVAS units get shipped via FedEx to the customer.
Once the initial install is done on the aircraft, the re-install following routine maintenance would take a minimal amount of time.
A 120 month (10 yr.) rebuild is performed on an EVAS unit. The 120 months rebuild includes replacing most major parts to the unit. Once a customer signs a contract to obtain an EVAS Safety System, VisionSafe offers their customers a 50% discount from the original purchase price towards an EVAS replacement.
Yes, we do offer leasing programs to our customers and are available upon request. However, it is important to note that it is customer specific, based on their need and the agreement.
Yes, they do to a degree, it’s more of an “enhancement” to the insurance companies review of an airlines Safety Management System (SMS). Although, there is no direct correlation, it is part of an overall safety assessment grade.
Note: Refer to Training Document 8015 for complete instructions.
The pilot will deploy the unit by first removing the cover from the EVAS container.
Once the container is open, the pilot inserts his hand into the unit and removes the IVU from the container and places the entire IVU package onto a strip of loop fastener installed on the glare shield.
Removal of the IVU package from the container pulls a lanyard, closing the lanyard switch, will automatically start the blower and switch the internal IVU light ON (LED LIGHT).
As soon as vision assistance is needed during a smoke emergency, the pilot must hold the IVU in place on the glare shield with one hand and release the IVU for inflation by firmly pulling on the tab of the restraining strap with the other hand.
As the IVU begins to inflate, the pilot may assist the inflation process by gently unfolding the IVU envelope. The pilot will then position the windshield portion and the instrument panel portion for optimum vision. It’s important to assist the instrument portion of the IVU so it inflates between the control wheel and the instruments.
While the unit is in use, EVAS will inflate the IVU with filtered, clear air at a pressure slightly above that of ambient air, thus displacing all the smoke of the IVU. Being that the IVU is transparent, this gives the pilot a clear view to the essential flight instruments and the windshield. There is a small LED light that is fixed within the IVU which remains lit to provide the necessary illumination of the flight instruments.
We are aware of 2 fully deployed EVAS systems on an aircraft and several occurrences of EVAS being “armed” in flight. It is a requirement under FAR §91.1415 to report smoke events to the Administrator. Commercial aircraft are required to submit incident reports as per the FAA requirements.
We offer our customers specially designed training materials to assist them in arming, deploying and cost-effective reuse of the EVAS safety system.
We also recommend training to our customers on how to properly place
and deploy the unit, followed by actual flying situations with full deployment.
Then, once a customer purchases an EVAS unit, technically it is up to their discretion on whether they choose to deploy the unit for their own training purposes.
Remember the IVU is typically for 1 time use only and would need to be replaced.
Keep in mind, VisionSafe will charge a customer for servicing a unit that has been deployed other than for an actual smoke emergency. A customer may be charged anywhere from $3,000 to $6,000 for servicing the unit.
Remember – EVAS is for Emergency Use Only.
Yes, it can be easily and quickly deployed. It takes about 30 to 60 seconds for the IVU to fully inflate.
The range in time relays primarily to the size to the cockpit. A smaller aircraft will require less time (approx. 30 seconds) for a smaller IVU whereas a larger aircraft will require a larger IVU and take more time to inflate (approx. 60 seconds). The range in time allows the pilot to provide adjustments as deemed necessary as it inflates.
Given the need for self-powering the unit and our avoidance to lithium ion batteries, the current system we provide to inflate the IVU is the most reliable and safest method.
f an EVAS unit is deployed in an actual smoke emergency, it is imperative that a PILOT SMOKE EVENT REPORT* is filled out. This form may be completed either by the pilot or another crew member familiar with the incident. All information that is provided will be kept CONFIDENTIAL and PROPRIETARY. Once the form is filled out, a customer has the following options available to them:
In an Emergency,
The maximum operating time is approximately 4 hours. Rated operating time is 2.5 hours.
EVAS has been altitude tested to 50,000 feet with a depressurization within 15 seconds, followed by additional fluctuations in altitude, during these tests EVAS conformed to its’ performance specs.
There have been no reported incidences of unit malfunctions due to:
Yes, the EVAS unit has a master switch, whereas the pilot can continuously turn the power on and off. The pilot will notice the IVU will begin to deflate and will need to turn it back on if the smoke increases within the cockpit. In doing so, the pilot will be able to extend the life of battery as opposed to it running continuously. However, keep in mind that the duration of running the unit non-stop for approximately 2.5 in flight should provide ample time to locate an area for a safe landing.
Approximately 2.5 hours non-stop (150 minutes). Given 2 units, with one being operable and the other on standby, (deployed but not inflated). The aircraft could have approximately 4.5 hours of minimum of flight time. This also will be dependent on the size of the IVU in the aircraft.
No, it will not.
EVAS is an open system that is not affected by pressure in a stored state. In a deployed state, a 12VDC blower provides positive filtered air pressure to inflate the IVU. An attached relief valve is used to normalize the pressure in the IVU and prevent back pressure to the blower. Internal IVU pressure is approximately 9.6 in H20 which is measured in manometer. In theory, EVAS becomes more efficient at higher altitudes due to the internal cabin pressure acting on EVAS at cruising is max at 8000 ft (≈ 10.9 psia) whereas at sea level it's approximately 14.7 psia.
The IVU is made from a clear Teflon and a ripstop fire-retardant nylon, that is sewn together using a high tensile strength polyester thread. A test time is performed on the fire-retardant nylon. It is a 12 second vertical burn test that is a FAA requirement. The components that makeup the EVAS system have passed all 14 CFR 25.853 flammability requirements.
The IVU will still maintain in its’ shape and form despite a small puncture. The view is enough to see out the window and the instruments. This is all part of the STC approval process. However, the EVAS unit must be sent in for repair.
If the unit is deployed in an actual smoke emergency, the IVU provides a flight path view up to 53º wide, depending on cockpit geometry and size.
When the unit was initially designed, the goal was for the flight crew to able to see all the essential instruments for flight which include airspeed, altimeter, vertical speed, heading and turn coordinators. The pilot will be able to easily access the emergency check lists, approach plates (airspeed & altimeter), iPad and electronic flight bag (EFB) as each unit has pockets for convenience.
No, it would not. Once the IVU is deployed, it will not interfere with the Electronic Flight Information System, (EFIS). During the certification process, the EVAS unit is tested to ensure that upon deployment, it will not cause any interference or uncommand inputs. Most touch screens require something conductive to activate them. The materials are not conductive and do not activate touchscreens on their own. Therefore, if you were to apply pressure on the IVU itself, it would not activate an iPad. However, if you would use your finger to touch the material and the screen, it would then activate a touch screen. But, not on its’ own.
The EVAS unit is used in conjunction with the aircraft’s emergency oxygen mask and goggles in order to breathe comfortably once the cockpit is filled with smoke.
Yes, EVAS is covered by a comprehensive renewable/transferable 10-year warranty.
VisionSafe recommends using the STC version of the EVAS unit. There is no additional fee for the STC version, and the installation itself is very inexpensive. Part 91 operators do not require an STC. However, Part 135 operators do require the STC for the main purpose of acquiring training for the installed equipment.
No, EVAS is not serviceable in the field and the components are not interchangeable.
We cannot modify loose equipment to STC equipment.
No, not typically. If we have an approved EVAS model, we cannot do any customizing. The only time we “customize” is during the design and certification process. Once we have the STC, we cannot change the unit without recertification. Customization is possible if there is a signed purchase agreement between VisionSafe Corporation and the customer. We can provide customer specified colors on the container for cargo fleet customers.
VisionSafe’s main headquarters is in Kaneohe, Hawaii. Kaneohe is a town within the county of Honolulu. The address is 46-217 Kahuhipa St. Kaneohe, HI 96744.
Yes, we also have an office in Teterboro, New Jersey. The address is 401 Industrial Avenue, Teterboro, NJ 07608
Our company, VisionSafe, has a staff of 28 employees. Our NJ office consists of 6 employees. Our Hawaii office consists of 22 employees. We have 7 members on our Board of Directors. Our leadership team have well over 175 years of combined experience and knowledge within the aviation industry & customer service.
The hours of operation in Hawaii are Monday thru Friday from 7am - 4pm (HST). The customer service number is (800) 441-9230. Our NJ office hours of operation are Monday thru Friday 9am - 5pm (EST). To reach our NJ office, that number is 973-864-6206.
Yes, a customer will need to call our toll-free number at 800-441-9230 and will be immediately directed to a member of our team for further assistance
FAA repair Station
EASA Repair Station
Registered to ISO 9001:2015, AS9100D and AS9110C
Our aircraft customers include: Executive Air, UPS, Atlas, FedEx, JetBlue, ASL Airlines Ireland, Beijing Airlines Limited, Empire Airlines, Emirates, Kuwait Airways, Qantas Airways, China Eastern Airlines, U.S. Military, FAA, DHL, Boeing, Cargolux Airlines International S.A., Kalitta Air, LLC., Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd., and AirBridgeCargo Airlines LLC.
We have nearly 7,000 EVAS systems protecting 3,500 airplanes worldwide every day.
EVAS is retrofitted fleet-wide on FedEx, UPS, Atlas Air, Kalitta Air, Cargolux Airlines International S.A.
EVAS is also on the following Cargo fleets, Cathy Pacific Airways Ltd., and Emirates.
We cover over 70% of the Air Cargo Commercial Jet Fleet.
We presently have a working relationship with the following OEMs - Boeing, Bombardier, Dassault, Embraer and Gulfstream.
EVAS safety systems are on most Fortune 100 companies.
EVAS is standard equipment on Gulfstream’s long-range business jet fleet, G650.
Gulfstream has outfitted over 1000 aircraft with EVAS safety system.
VisionSafe holds nearly over 100 STC’s for the following OEMs- Aerospatiale (ATR), Airbus, Beechcraft, Bombardier, Cessna, Dassault, Embraer and Gulfstream.
For the simple fact, EVAS can save your life. Aviation safety is important in all respects because when it comes to aviation, there is no second chance. It is our mission at VisionSafe to provide pilots with one of the most important tools in the aviation industry, the ability to see clearly during a smoke emergency in the cockpit. Safety is our #1 priority. This is like an aircraft being equipped with personal floatation devices and life rafts, although the actual incident may be low, but when needed, it can save lives. No one can predict when a cockpit smoke emergency can happen, but when it does, crews and passengers should feel rest assured that every possibly life-saving resource has been provided to them. In 2019 – there were 653 smoke incidents reported (as per the FAA – more information to follow pending verifications).
Most organizations do not endorse specific products, they will instead support a given technology. Some of the largest pilot unions including ALPA, CAPA, and organizations like the Royal Aeronautical Society, Flight Safety Foundation and others, have all voiced support for “Smoke Displacement Technology” of which EVAS is the only system. Furthermore the FAA has equipped their own aircraft with EVAS, and the CAST Safety Enhancement SE 226 document calls for Air Carriers to “Implement a means to maintain pilots’ view of necessary flight information in dense continuous smoke conditions on the flight deck. Download the CAST Safety Enhancement SE 226
The 747 Smoke Port was not developed as a solution for blinding smoke in the cockpit, in fact the port was originally a sexton star sighting port! Crew members would open the port to take star shots for navigation. It was later repurposed as a suction vent. The Royal Aeronautical Societies SAFITA report (Smoke And Fumes In Transport Aircraft) points out this suction vent, and the suction vent created by an open window pull air and smoke from within the aircraft to the cockpit and then attempt to vent it over board. This concept is terminally flawed. As Boeing and ALPA reports conclude - a overwhelming majority of smoke events are generated from a source that cannot be determined in flight and that cannot be extinguished in flight. This fact means that the majority of smoke events should be deemed as capable of generating continuous smoke. The FAA states this factually and clearly in part 25.9a documentation. Thus an event of smoke that reaches a point when vision is obscured in the flight deck is not likely to improve or be contained - smoke will continue to be generated by the source - whatever that may be.
For this reason cockpit venting has an extremely narrow scope of benefit. VisionSafe and Singapore Airlines conducted a best case test to determine the effectiveness of the 747 smoke port during an event of continuously generated smoke from a source within the cockpit. The port had no effect on visibility - the smoke port's ability to vent smoke and dilute remaining smoke had no effect on cockpit visibility. The port was open - the aircraft was fully pressurized and - nothing other than noise related to the suction occurred. The smoke remained. Only in cases when the source of smoke has been stopped will cockpit venting procedures be effective.
Venting on its own is an effective method of air exchange. The concept of dumping smoke over board and refilling the aircraft with clean air offers momentary relief. Unchecked smoke sources however have now been aggravated by the "blow torch" effect of massive airflow exchange, and once the pressure vessel has fully vented the ability to pressure vent is over. A reinvigorated continuous smoke source will now refill the aircraft with smoke quickly. Now a crew left with cockpit suction venting using smoke ports or windows has really reached the end of the line. Suction venting will draw smoke into the flight deck, and if the source is the flight deck and is continuous as we've seen in the Singapore Airlines test - it will not work. Bleed air and Ram air provide a degree of smoke dilution - but one must consider the smoke from a fire involving aircraft materials is a thick black dense smoke, it will not always work in a meaningful manner. This is a serious condition.
EVAS Smoke Protection is the only solution. Crews can forget about the smoke and save the aircraft. In an aircraft that is salvageable - nothing is more fundamentally critical than vision. No landing gear, no engines, no brakes, no hydraulics, critically damaged flight controls - all of this and more is trained for and survivable - but two blind pilots are incapacitated, and may as well have jump out of the aircraft. And the flight that could have made it is lost - for no good reason.
An event when the smoke source is arrested is counter intuitive to the use of EVAS, once this has been achieved EVAS's function has been completed. However - the very critical factor must be considered. All events where smoke is present are in fact fire or dispersed vapor emergencies. The flight crews attention must not be diverted from the task of landing as soon as practical, and to secure and stop the source of smoke and fire. The reality is that once the smoke levels reach a point of interfering with pilot vision - the entire focus of the crew becomes dealing with a smoke emergency - at this point the source continues un-checked, and the process of landing the aircraft becomes impossible.
EVAS equipped aircraft are not subjected to the distraction of a smoke emergency. Flight crews are afforded life saving options - they can continue on to a safe landing, and continue to run procedures aimed at securing the source of the smoke. The best chance for survival is provided by the EVAS system.